Varnishing
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  Varnishing
 

The term varnish is used to indicate the solution of resins or resinous substances prepared either in alcohol, oil or turpentine.

Following are the main objects of applying varnish on a wooden surface:
(1) It brings the appearance of the grain in wood.
(2) It renders brilliancy to the painted surface.
(3) It protects the painted surface from atmospheric actions.
(4) It protects the unpainted wooden surfaces of doors, windows, roof trusses, floors, etc., from the actions of atmospheric agencies.

The term varnish is used to indicate the solution of resins or resinous substances prepared either in alcohol, oil or turpentine.

Following are the main objects of applying varnish on a wooden surface:
(1) It brings the appearance of the grain in wood.
(2) It renders brilliancy to the painted surface.
(3) It protects the painted surface from atmospheric actions.
(4) It protects the unpainted wooden surfaces of doors, windows, roof trusses, floors, etc., from the actions of atmospheric agencies.
Characteristics of an ideal varnish: Following are the characteristics of an ideal varnish:
(1) It should render the surface glossy.
(2) It should dry rapidly and present a finished surface which is uniform in nature and pleasing in appearance.
(3) The colour of varnish should not fade away when the surface is exposed to the atmospheric actions.
(4) The protecting film developed by varnish should be tough, hard and durable.
(5) It should not shrink or show cracks after drying.

Ingredients of varnish: Following are the ingredients of a varnish:
(1) Resins or resinous substances

(2) Driers
(3) Solvents.

(1) Resins or resinous substances: The commonly used resins are copal, lac or shellac and rosin. The copal is a hard substance and is available from the earth at place where pine trees existed in past. It is available in variety of forms. The lac or shellac is obtained by exudation of some types of insects in India. The rosin is obtained from pine trees. Oth

(3) Turpentine varnishes: The turpentine is used as solvent in this type of varnish. The resins adopted are of soft variety such as gum dammar, mastic and rosin. These varnished dry quickly and possess light colours. They are not durable and tough as oil varnishes.

(4) Water varnishes: The shellac is dissolved in hot water and enough quantity of either ammonia or borax or potash or soda is added such shellac is dissolved. These varnishes are used for varnishing maps, pictures, etc. they are also used for delicate internal work and as a covering for wall paper.

            
 
 
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